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Liver Transplantation

What is a liver transplant? 

A liver transplant is an operation where your diseased liver is removed and replaced with a healthy donor human liver. Although liver transplants are now quite common, the operation is not undertaken lightly. It is a major operation and the body will always see the 'new' liver as a foreign agent and will try to destroy it. This means that if you have a liver transplant you will have to take medication for the rest of your life to stop your body rejecting the donor liver.

Why do I need a liver transplant?

You may need a liver transplant if your liver is damaged to the point where it is unable to repair itself and is likely to fail completely. Your doctor may advise you to have a transplant when it is thought this will either dramatically improve your quality of life or that, without a transplant, you will die.

The main causes of severe liver damage that lead to people needing a transplant are:

  • cirrhosis
  • viral hepatitis
  • metabolic conditions (problems with the physical and chemical processes that take place inside your liver to keep you alive)
  • paracetamol poisoning

How will I benefit from a transplant?

By the time you discover you need a transplant your liver might begin to fail and your quality of life may be very poor. You may have experienced the following symptoms:

  • loss of appetite
  • generally feeling unwell and being tired all the time
  • feeling sick and being sick
  • very itchy skin
  • loss of weight and muscle wasting
  • enlarged and tender liver (you may feel very tender below your right ribs)
  • increased sensitivity to alcohol and drugs (medical and recreational)
  • yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)
  • swelling of the lower abdomen, or tummy (ascites), or the legs (peripheral oedema)
  • fever with high temperatures and shivers, often caused by an infection
  • vomiting blood
  • dark black tarry stools (faeces) or pale stools, associated with cholestatic disease
  • periods of mental confusion.

Having a liver transplant is a major undertaking but can lead to a resolution for these symptoms and, if successful, you should have an average life expectancy.

Tests Before a Liver Transplant

When Will I Have My Transplant?

What Happens When a Donor is Found?

After the Transplant and Leaving Hospital

What Are the Chances of Rejection?

Frequently Asked Questions


Please visit the support section of our website for information on Support groups in your area or visit our Useful Links section for other organisations who may be able to offer information and support.

National Liver Offering Scheme

The National Liver Offering Scheme was introduced by NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) in March 2018. It is a way of matching donor livers to patients on the liver transplant waiting list on a national basis rather by region. The scheme also introduces a new scoring system called the Transplant Benefit Score (TBS). See our Frequently Asked Questions page for more information.

Further information

Read the NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) annual report on Liver Transplantation in the UK for 2016/17.

Download Publication

For full information download the publication below:

Download current edition:  Liver Transplantation publication


Special thanks to Dr Audrey Dillon, consultant hepatologist, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust; Mr Parthi Srinivasan, consultant surgeon and liver transplant specialist, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust; Dr Abid Suddle, consultant hepatologist and liver transplant specialist, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. Jane Cooke and Lucy Anderson Jones lay reviewers.